Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
Velocity Verlet integration. A variant of Verlet integration that is sometimes
used is the velocity Verlet algorithm (also called Leapfrog integration):
x ( t t )= x ( t )+ v ( t t + a ( t )(Δ t ) 2 / 2 ,
v ( t t/ 2) = v ( t )+ a ( t t/ 2 ,
a ( t t )= f ( x ( t t ) , v ( t t/ 2)) ,
v ( t t )= v ( t t/ 2) + a ( t t t/ 2 ,
where f is a function of position and velocity that yields the acceleration given
by the current context.
The physics engine in Hitman relies on basic Verlet integration only, but in
situations that call for higher accuracy or additional robustness, velocity Verlet
integration may sometimes be more suitable.
Using Verlet integration in a physics simulation. It is easy to implement the
results of the above section in a function that updates a set of unconstrained
// Use Verlet integration to advance an array of particles
// t: Size of time step
// x: Array of current positions of particles
// x prev: Array of previous positions of particles
// a: Current acceleration of each particle
// n: Total number of particle coordinates
void VerletTimeStep( double t, double
x, double
x prev,
double a, int n)
double x old;
for ( int i=0; i < n; i++) {
x old = x;
x = 1.99 ∗∗ x 0.99 ∗∗ x prev + a t t;
x prev = x old;
x prev++;
The above code has been written for clarity, not speed. Note that it is possible to
save memory transfers with a double-buffering approach by alternating between
two arrays. Note also that the Verlet formula has been changed slightly to include
the two factors 1 . 99 and 0 . 99 in order to introduce a small amount of drag in the
system for further stabilization.
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