Game Development Reference
1.4 Matrices and Transformations
A matrix is an m
n array of components with m rows and n columns. These
components could be complex numbers, vectors, or even other matrices, but most
of the time when we refer to a matrix, its components are real numbers. An
example of a 2 × 3 matrix is
We refer to a single element in the i th row and j th column of the matrix A as a ij .
Those elements where i = j are the diagonal of the matrix.
A matrix whose elements below and to the left of the diagonal (i.e., those
where i>j ) are 0 is called an upper triangular matrix. Similarly, a matrix
whose elements above and to the right of the diagonal (i.e., those where i<j )
are 0 is called a lower triangular matrix. And those where all the non-diagonal
elements are 0 are called diagonal matrices.
A matrix is called symmetric if, for all i and j , the elements a ij = a ji , i.e., it
is mirrored across the diagonal. A matrix is skew symmetric if for all i and j the
elements a ij =
a ji . Clearly, the diagonal elements must be 0 in this case.
1.4.2 Basic Operations
Matrices can be added and scaled like vectors:
C = A + B ,
k A .
In the first case, each element c ij = a ij + b ij , and in the second, d ij = ka ij .
Matrices can be transposed by swapping elements across the diagonal, i.e.,
amatrix G is the transpose of matrix A if for all i and j , g ij = a ji .Thisis
G = A T .
Finally, matrices can be multiplied:
H = AB .
Here, for a given element h ij , we take the corresponding row i from A and cor-
responding column j from B , multiply them component-wise, and take the sum,
h ij =
a ik b kj .