Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
As you can see, upon entering CalcObjectForces the code enters a loop that cycles
through all the billiard ball objects, computing the forces acting on each. The first force
computed is simple aerodynamic drag. Both linear and angular drag are computed. We
compute the magnitude of the linear drag by multiplying the linear drag coefficient by
1/2ρ V 2 r r , where ρ is the density of air, V is the ball's linear speed, and r is the ball's
radius. We compute the magnitude of the angular drag moment by multiplying the
angular drag coefficient by ωρ4 r 2π, where ω is angular speed. Since drag retards motion,
the linear drag and angular drag vectors are simply the opposite of the linear and angular
velocity vectors, respectively. Normalizing those vectors and then multiplying by the
respective drag magnitudes yields the linear and angular drag force and moment vec‐
The next set of forces calculated in CalcObjectForces is the contact forces between the
table top and each ball. There are three contact forces. One is the vertical force that
keeps the balls from falling through the table, another is the friction force that arises as
the balls slide along the table, and the third is rolling resistance. These forces arise only
if the ball is in contact with the table. We'll address how to determine whether a ball is
in contact with the table later in this chapter. For now, we'll assume there's contact and
show you how to compute the contact forces.
To compute the vertical force required to keep the ball from falling through the table,
we must first compute the ball's linear acceleration, which is equal to the sum of forces
(excluding contact forces) acting on the ball divided by the ball's mass. Next, we take
the negative dot product of that acceleration and the vector perpendicular to the table
surface and multiply the result by the ball's mass. This yields the magnitude of the contact
force, and to get the vector we multiply that magnitude by the unit vector perpendicular
to the table's surface. The following two lines of code perform these calculations:
Bodies[i].vAcceleration = Bodies[i].vForces / Bodies[i].fMass;
ContactForce = (Bodies[i].fMass * (-Bodies[i].vAcceleration *
Collisions[j].vCollisionNormal)) *
The vCollisionNormal vector is determined by CheckGroundPlaneContacts , which
we'll cover later. As with collisions, CheckGroundPlaneContacts fills in a data structure
containing the point of contact, relative velocity between the ball and table at the point
of contact, and the contact normal and tangent vectors, among other data.
To compute the sliding friction force, we must first determine the tangential component
of the relative velocity between the ball and table. If the ball is sliding or slipping as it
rolls, then the relative tangential velocity will be greater than 0. If the ball is rolling
without sliding, then the relative velocity will be 0. In either case, there will be a friction
force; in the former case, we'll use the kinetic friction coefficient, and in the latter we'll
use the static friction coefficient. Friction force is computed in the same way we showed
you in Chapter 3 . The following lines of code perform all these calculations:
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