Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
To accelerate the lookup time, we have to simplify the transmittance func-
tion. In the case of volume data, a sophisticated algorithm for handling the
inclination of the transmittance function has been proposed in the original DSM
paper [Lokovic and Veach 00]. In the case of hair rendering, however, we deal
with a simple, piecewise constant version of the transmittance function. Hence,
it turned out that a simple but ecient optimization strategy is to merely cut
off the transmittance function after its value does not change significantly any
more, i.e., if k +1
i =0
< i =0 (1
α i ). In our experiments the frame
time has been improved by approximately 40% using an of 0 . 001, which does
not visibly compromise the quality of the shadows. Note that a more sophisti-
cated GPU-friendly compression scheme has been proposed by Salvi et al. [Salvi
et al. 10] that limits the transmittance functions to a fixed size and works for
shadowing both hair and participating media. This method could alternatively
be used instead of the simple truncation, and we believe that it would work well
in combination with our neighbor-linking approach (possibly further accelerating
the lookup time).
1.3.3 Neighbor Linking
In this step we store links with each entry (fragment) of a linked list to those
entries (fragments) in the neighboring linked lists that are closest to it in terms
of light-space depth. The reasoning behind this step is that for adjacent pixels
in screen space, it's very likely that they have approximately the same depth
in light space due to spatial coherence. During filtering, the links enable direct
access to the depth-nearest neighbors of a fragment in the DSM. Once we found
a fragment corresponding to a given light-space depth, the other corresponding
fragments of nearby filter samples can be found very quickly. Note that we only
create links for the great majority of pixels where the assumption of coherence of
depth values holds.
In order to keep the memory overhead as low as possible, only links to the left
and upper neighbor are stored. This suces for computing all other filter samples
when starting from the lower-left corner of a rectangular filtering window. For
creating the links, in each thread (note that there is one thread for each shadow-
map texel) we simultaneously traverse the linked list associated with the texel
in question as well as the lists associated with the right texel neighbor and the
upper texel neighbor. For each fragment, we traverse each neighboring list until
we either find a fragment that is farther in depth or encounter the end of the list.
Then, either the last traversed or the previously traversed neighboring fragment
will be the one that is closest in depth to the current fragment. We link the current
fragment to its depth-nearest neighbors by storing their indices, which we denote
right and upper for each list element. The expense of storing three additional
integers per list element (the two neighbor links and the prev link) increases the
overall memory requirements by about 25%, but this pays off during filtering as
will become clear in Section 1.3.5.
α i )
(1
 
 
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