Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
Then the extent of a frustum is split into cells; for each pixel in a tile, we flag a
cell to which the pixel belongs. We call thedataweconstructforatileafrustum
and an array of occupancy flags a depth mask.
To check overlap of light geometry on the tile, the light geometry first is
checked against the frustum. If the light overlaps, a depth mask is created for
the light. This is done by calculating the extent of the light geometry in the depth
direction of the frustum and flagging the cells to that extent. By comparing the
depth mask for a light to the depth mask for the tile, we can cull the light in the
depth direction. Overlap of the light is reported only if there is at least one cell
flagged by both depth masks.
If a tile has a foreground and background, the 2.5D culling can detect and
drop lights that fall between these two surfaces, thus reducing the number of
lights to be processed at the final shading.
Implementation. The 2.5D culling splits a frustum into 32 cells, and so the occu-
pancy information is stored in a 32-bit value. This cell data is allocated in shared
memory to make it available to all threads in a group. The first modification to
the light-culling kernel is the construction of an occupancy mask of the surface.
This is performed after calculating the frustum extent in the depth direction.
The pitch of a cell is calculated from the extent.
Once the pitch and the minimum depth value are obtained, any depth value
can be converted to a cell index. To create the depth mask for a tile, we iterate
through all the pixels in the tile and calculate a cell index for each pixel. Then
a flag for the occupied cell is created by a bit shift, which is used to mark the
depth mask in shared memory using an atomic logical-or operation.
Once we find a light overlapping the frustum, a depth mask is created for the
light. The minimum and maximum depth values of the geometry are calculated
and converted to cell indices. Once the cell indices are calculated, two bit-shift
operations and a bit-and operation are necessary to create the depth mask for
the light. If the light and surface occupy the same cell, both have the same flag
at the cell. Thus taking logical and operation between these two masks is enough
to check the overlap.
Results. We took several scenes and counted the number of lights per tile with
the original Forward+ and Forward+ with our proposed 2.5D culling. The first
benchmark is performed against the scene in Figure 5.7(a) , which has a large
variance in the depth. Figures 5.7(b) and 5.7(c) visualize the number of lights
overlapping each tile using Forward+ with frustum culling and the proposed 2.5D
Figure 5.7(b) makes clear that tiles that contain an object's edge capture a
large number of lights. The number of overlapping lights is reduced dramatically
when 2.5D culling is used ( Figure 5.7(c)). We also counted the number of lights
overlapping each tile and quantitatively compared these two culling methods
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