Game Development Reference
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and attitudes that together, form an identity as
someone who is a capable consumer, and perhaps
even producer of scientific knowledge. Some
have even speculated that this “identity-level” is
a good way for educators to think about transfer.
Perhaps if students experience the development
of identities as competent performers in science,
acquiring knowledge, skills, and beliefs congruent
with those valued by various scientific communi-
ties, they will take on these practices outside of
formal school contexts. So, in line with the use of
new digital media, a current tendency in educa-
tion acknowledges the emergence of new learning
experiences that games may turn out and seeks to
understand their consequences for how we think,
act, play, and learn (Shaffer et al., 2005).
the constraints set by a curriculum, to replace
it with an ongoing process of learning through
continual exploration and negotiation. As Don
Tapscott (2008) puts it: “Educators should take
note. The current model of pedagogy is teacher
focused, one-way, one size fits all. It isolates the
student in the learning process. Many Net Gen-
ers learn more by collaborating—both with their
teacher and with each other. They'll respond to
the new model of education that's beginning to
surface—student-focused and multiway, which
is customized and collaborative.” (p. 108). We
would just add that learning in this way is in fact
pervasive or ubiquitous education. This means
that education is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a
week, anywhere, and anytime. Pervasive learning
is also a social process that connects learners to
communities of devices, people, and society so
that students can construct relevant and meaningful
learning experiences, author specific content (text,
images, audio, video), in locations and at times
that they find meaningful and relevant.
So, for the most part, distance learning has
become a way of life for students wherever they
are. For the institutions this is good news, as
for the first time in history we have educational
technologies that cost nothing to governments and
schools: smartphones and mobile computers (most
students have one), networking software (freely
available, e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Skype), learning
applications (increasingly available, often for free
e.g., Apple Store) and open educational resources
(freely available, e.g., MIT - OCW, Stanford). On
top of this, there are many other free tools avail-
able for personal learning environments, such as
collaborative tools (e.g., blogs, wikis, authoring
software), immersive environments (e.g., virtual
worlds like Second Life), media production and
distribution tools, and so on. There is an old ad-
age of distance education research that states:
'It is not technologies with inherent pedagogical
qualities that are successful in distance education,
but technologies that are generally available to
citizens' (Dias et al., 2008).
Convergence of Learning Modes
In the last decade the classroom mode and the
distance learning mode have been converging, in
part due to the success of many e-learning experi-
ences, based on the progress in information and
communication technologies and their permeat-
ing all learning environments in most developed
countries. Using computers and accessing the
Web in schools and universities, taking advantage
of quality learning products in digital format,
linking institutions with broadband connections,
using Web 2.0 networking applications, all cre-
ate favorable conditions for increasing student
autonomy and learning effectiveness (Moore &
Anderson, 2003). But this also creates a shift in
teacher's profiles and roles: the ability to virtually
experience events in shared spaces determines that
they become mediators between students and the
information provided by a variety of sources, rather
than being the exclusive owners of knowledge to
be transmitted.
Globally, the implications of this re-conception
of education, as a mobile and flexible exchange
of ideas in a broad context, are profound. It goes
beyond the traditional view of instruction as the
transmission or construction of knowledge within
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