Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
they perceive it as wearisome. Sutherland, Con-
nolly and Livingstone (2007) explain that “it also
proved impossible to persuade digital artists to
get involved. For both programmers and artists
the 'boring' word kept reappearing, despite their
need to create a significant game piece as part of
their future employment portfolio” (p. 21). The
third problem is managerial. Game-based learning
environment needs a different kind of classroom
management and organization structure to allow
for the uniqueness of games-based instruction.
Game playing requires reflective thinking and
logistic maneuvers; these mental and physical
activities require longer time than is provided in
the time-table. To be effective in using computer
games as tools for learning, teachers need a new
paradigm to address gaming in the classroom,
schools need to understand gaming rules, pro-
cedures and processes and reconcile them with
educational policies and practices.
will accompany computer games for students'
all-round intellectual development. There is the
question of financing game-based instruction. Will
teachers be re-trained to make them ready for the
new paradigm in instructional delivery? Will the
state or federal government make game software
available to all students? Otherwise, students from
humble background will be disadvantaged. The
current virtual divide will be exacerbated. There is
also the question of monitoring students to make
sure that while using computer games to learn
that they also read their textbooks and complete
the prescribed assignments or homework. Game
industries and brokers must take into consideration
the school timetable in order to properly allocate
available school time. It is also important that
school personnel like principals; curriculum and
technology specialists possess basic knowledge
of computer games and theories in order to make
informed judgment regarding the appropriateness
and suitability of instructional games.
DIFFICULTIES IN USING COMPUTER
GAMES TO MOTIVATE LEARNING
GENDER DIFFERENCES
IN COKMPUTER GAMES
PREFERENCES
One of the difficulties facing the use of computer
games for learning is that game designers focus
on building authoring tools for games and not
considering the process of instruction and how
it sequenced. Fortugno and Zimmerman (2005)
argue that for teacher to use games for instruc-
tion they should have considerable knowledge in
gaming activities including acquire theoretical
knowledge in basic game design. Game makers
have not addressed the issue of choice differences
in computer games. It is not clear how this may
impact on educational games. It is also necessary
to consider age appropriateness in computer game
selection as well as cultural ramifications implicit
in some of the games sold in the market.
Evidence suggests that a great number of
teachers may not be comfortable using the
ever changing computer games for instruction.
Textbook designers must design textbook that
Klawe (1998) studied 4 th and 5 th graders and found
that boys and girls exhibit different game prefer-
ences. Klawe recalls that when both boys and girls
play games together, the latter feel intimidated
and reluctant to compete. However, when girls
compete among themselves, they show more zeal
and also become more expressive. Klawe remarks
that during discussion, girls acknowledge that they
are uncomfortable playing with the boys because
they assume that boys are more skilled in play-
ing computer games and as a result are somehow
intimidated. Klawe points out that it is difficult to
establish the cause of such difference; it may be
due to attitudinal differences or level of experience
each gender has in playing computer games. One
way of addressing the problem is for teachers to
encourage and assure the girls that they can com-
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