Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
TRENDS IN COMPUTER GAME
DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING
has noted, the constituents of video and computer
games are changing; 43% of women now play
electronic games. According to Cloultie (2004),
women who are 40 years or more spend about
50% of their time playing various kinds of games.
The average age of gamers is equally changing.
About a decade ago, teenage boys played video
games more than any other age group but the
trend seems to be changing. The average age
of gamers is 29 years and the age groups which
indulge in games is between 18 and 35 (Goodale,
2004). Age range for computer and video games
is getting more diverse, the choice for games
is equally more diverse. The problem for game
designers is produce games that appeal to diverse
game enthusiasts in terms of age as well as the
growing female players. The other issue is to
design computer games that will generate fun for
diverse constituents and at the same time motivate
them to learn without compromising pedagogical
principles and authentic learning outcome. So far
these expectations have eluded game designers
and educators.
Most people will agree that computer and video
games have taken off like a wildfire and the
intensity with which it burns is ferocious. The
acceleration of computer games is embedded on
the rapid advancement of technology generally.
Arnseth (2006) has documented how electronic
game consoles like Sony PlayStation, Microsoft
Xbox including the Nintendo DS and Sony PSP
have transformed into a popular culture. According
to Arnseth (2006), such popularity has created con-
sciousness among educators and game researchers
regarding the use of game activities as learning
tools. Gaming industries have unequivocally
taken advantage of the dominance of computer
in economic and social fabrics of the society as
well as in cultural development.
The exceptional success of gaming industry
has provided incentives for the development of
computer game programming (Doughty, 2010).
There is little dispute in the literature that the
development of Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) by
Thomas T. Goldsmith in 1947marked the begin-
ning of the computer era. In 1958, William Higin-
botham created Tennis for Two on an oscilloscope
designed as an entertainment for those who visit
Brookhaven located in New York. Also in 1961,
Steve Russell and a group of students succeeded
in programming a game known as Spacewar. Don
Daglow provided the first Computer Baseball
game using a PDP-10 mainframe computer. It is
believed that Mike Mayfield created Star Trek
in 1971. In the 1980 and 90s, many more com-
puter games are created with better sophistication
and complexities. Among them is the Nintendo
Entertainment System (NES) which emerged in
1985. In 2005, Nintendo provided details of their
video game console known as Wii (http://www.
computernostalgia.net/articles/HistoryofCom-
puterGames.htm).
For decades, men especially boys dominated
video and computer games. But as Oser (2004)
3D COMPUTER GAMES
FOR LEARNING
The birth of three-dimensional (3D) image has
become a new buzz word. Movie industries and
film producers have capitalized on it. As a result,
entertainment industries are eager to give make-up
to their movies using the 3D features. The highly
acclaimed Avatar is a case in point. Gaming in-
dustries and educational institutions are jumping
the bandwagon to experiment on 3D novelty. But
what is 3D and how will it motivate students to
learn? In a simple term, 3D is a representation
of height and width as well as depth. There is no
doubt that perceiving a physical universe from
a 3D perspective provides students with better
interpretative skills because the object can be
viewed from three angles. Neville and Shelton
(2009) discussed how 3D, Digital Game-Based
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