Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
Table 1. Distribution of communication type dur-
ing a Cosiga game
nearly every concept increased in importance.
However, the production manager had a bad
experience: most concepts fell in importance, five
remained the same and only one increased in
importance. This result shows that the persons at
the downstream of the process (production) do
not get a very positive experience - due to their
lack of involvement (having to wait before they
can carry out any substantial actions). This, how-
ever, is a reflection of reality and shows that the
simulation has a good degree of fidelity with the
real-life NPD process; although from a gaming
point of view it is not very nice. The cognitive
analysis is a very useful tool which enables game
developers to fine tune their simulations. For
example, within Cosiga there is no emphasis upon
the cost of the product and so this concept fell in
importance for most participants. So this was an
effect of the particular configuration of Cosiga at
that time - making product cost an issue in the
simulation will mean that the concept should
increase in importance.
Table 2 shows the game effect and NPD/
Concurrent Engineering (CE) effect for one indi-
vidual. It can be seen that several key concurrent
engineering concepts increased significantly in
importance (prioritize work activities, work in
parallel, reduce time-to-market, and develop
an effective working relationship). Two other
CE/NPD aspects also increased in importance
(understand each others' objectives and focus on
quality). Game effects, resulting in a reduction in
importance, occur as there is no specific emphasis
within the game on reducing product cost, avoiding
duplicating work activities, understanding ease
of manufacture, understanding the task/problem
in depth, and developing new products (this last
one is explicitly the aim of the game).
Communication Type Frequency
Ask for (mostly Specific) Information 37%
Offer Information 12%
Request Action (time) 17%
Cajoling Action (e.g. re-requesting time) 9%
Replying to Action Request
Describing Action
Cognitive Evaluation of the Cosiga
The cognitive analysis was performed by con-
structing a 'questionnaire' consisting of a set of 19
concepts related to NPD and concurrent engineer-
ing. These were placed in a triangular grid, such
that each concept had to be rated by participants
on a scale of 0 to 10 as to how related it was to
the other 18 concepts. The questionnaire was is-
sued to the participants immediately before the
briefing at the beginning of the gaming session
and after gaming had finished. The responses to
the questionnaire were processed by the Path-
finder Network Analysis (Schvaneveldt, 1990)
method to plot maps of the relationships between
the concepts. The maps were then quantitatively
analysed by calculating the change in the number
of links (relations) each concept had as a result
of the simulation (number of links after - links
before). This gives a measure of how much the
importance of a concept (as determined by the
number of links to other concepts) changes as a
result of playing the Cosiga simulation. The results
can be plotted on polar plots, Figure 2.
It can be seen that the marketing manager had
a relatively positive experience from playing the
game: quite a few concepts increased in impor-
tance. The designer had a very positive effect:
Situational Awareness Evaluation of
the Cosiga Game
In collaboration with the Advanced Technology
Centre of BAE SYSTEMS experiments have also
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