Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
mation between different departments enables
the players to improve their communication
skills in distributed environments. Following
their role descriptions, some players act in a non-
collaborative way to simulate “people barriers”.
Together, the players experience the destructive
effect of such behaviour. Sometimes the infor-
mation will disappear and suppliers deliver too
late and the information system stops working.
This simulates a real organisational environment.
Within the second level of the Beware game, the
players use the acquired knowledge and skills in
the inter-organisational contract negotiations in
order to then specify, design and produce a com-
plex product inter-organisationally.
In the Beware game a production network
consisting of three companies is simulated: two
manufacturing companies and a services company.
The service company takes leadership of the pro-
duction network and develops services, the two
simulated manufacturing companies develop and
produce generic cell phone parts. As the necessary
information is distributed unequally by the game,
the partner companies have to cooperate to enable
a constant flow of information that will then lead
to a constant flow of material. Also different events
and risks are included, and the players need to
carry out some risk management tasks. In order
to develop and produce the game's product, the
overall success depends on every partner's suc-
cessful contribution. In order to simulate inter-
organisational learning and related challenges
realistically the constant flow of information is
affected by the simulated organisational boundar-
ies of space, time and diversity. The players are
required to find appropriate solutions in order to
overcome the barriers. Since the participating
organisations are located at different locations,
holding physical meetings is quite expensive and
thus no longer possible. This challenge requires
intense communication and collaboration among
the organisations. Additionally, two of the com-
panies receive cooperative role descriptions to
simulate diverse cultures. The following section
discusses evaluation and how the two games were
evaluated.
EVALUATION STRATEGIES
“Evaluation is the systematic investigation of an
evaluand's worth or merit. Evaluands include
programmes, studies, products, schemes, services,
organisations, policies, technologies and research
projects. The results, conclusions and recom-
mendations shall derive from comprehensible,
empirical qualitative and/ or quantitative data.”
(DeGEval 2003, p. 5) The term evaluation is
often used to simply express that something has
been tested, assessed or judged (Kromrey 2001
in DeGEval 2003). But a professional evaluation
goes beyond that, it strives for a comprehensive
assessment of the evaluand. Frank and Kromrey
define evaluation as “the assessment of an object
by applying certain methods in order to derive an
extent of concordance of the specific object with
a certain set of goals” (Kromrey, 2001 in Fettke
and Loos, 2004). An evaluation approach consists
of four components:
Evaluation object (Evaluand) : the spe-
cific artifact that needs to be evaluated, as
well as its environment and its effects. In
this chapter there are three evaluation ob-
jects: the games as a product, the training
courses and the games' learning outcomes.
These will be evaluated individually and
different evaluation methods and criteria
will be applied, as they all have different
evaluation objectives.
Evaluation objectives : A set of objectives
determines the goal of the evaluation proj-
ect in question. Examples here are that the
objective of the evaluation of the training
courses is to evaluate the learning outcome
as well as the suitability (i.e. if the course
trains the user on the right subject and lev-
el). The evaluation objective of the quality
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