Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
Table 1. Audio games categorisation based on genre and some examples
Action Games
Arcade Games
Puzzle Games
Strategy Games
Bobby's Revenge
Dark Destroyer
Crazy Tennis
Crazy Darts
Egg Hunt
JFW Hangman
Light Cars
Finger Panic
Maze Craze
Monkey Business
GTC 100 tank
Maze Game
Shades Of Doom
3D Snake
Sound Puzzle
objects where the visually impaired people can
get the whole picture of that object by senses of
touch and hearing. For example, positive results
that a computer game named Lugram (Lučić &
Vujnović-Sedlar, 2009) has achieved in regular
education encouraged its authors to adapt the
game for visually impaired, as described in (Lučić
et al., 2009).
them whether their reaction was suitable or not.
Music can also be a good element for depicting
states and situations a player can find himself/
herself in, or it can be used just as a background.
Due to the lack of sight, the blind rely on other
senses heavily, especially on the senses of touch
and hearing, making these senses more advanced
(Doucet et al., 2005), and allowing them to easily
learn to use keyboards very skillfully (attempts
have been made to add sound to the motion of the
mouse pointer). The alternative to using keyboards
is automatic speech recognition (ASR). Because
of intra- and interpersonal differences in the
speakers' voice, different setups and qualities of
microphones and the communication channels, as
well as different levels of ambient noise, ASR is a
very demanding task for the computer and is not
well developed for all languages. Studies usually
mention using ASR for issuing certain (already
standardized) voice commands, but unrestricted
human-to-computer speech communication is not
so common yet.
In the process of creating an audio game par-
ticular attention is devoted to presenting informa-
tion in audio form, because sound presentation
must carry all relevant information that allows
the player to react timely and in the right man-
ner. The GUI of a video game carries most of the
information, which gives particular broadness
and freedom while developing such games as
opposed to audio games. Portraying all relevant
information in audio form presents an interest-
ing challenge because the presentation of audio
information to the user is limited. In sound-based
Audio Technologies in the Computer
Games for the Visually Impaired
Generally speaking, the audio interface of a game
consists of speech, music and various sorts of audio
effects (Gaver, 1997). They must be presented
to a visually impaired user in such a manner that
allows him/her a suitable, timely reaction.
Speech is mostly used to introduce the user to
the guidelines and rules of the game, and for this
purpose synthesized speech is most commonly
used. Synthesized speech can be used in the game
itself more or less, depending on the type of the
game. If greater authenticity of the situation is to
be achieved, or in order to ensure that the right
reaction will be made, in most cases synthesized
speech can be replaced by recorded, natural speech.
It should be noted that the literature emphasizes
speech technologies as being crucial to the ad-
aptation of video games to the visually impaired
(Delić & Vujnović-Sedlar, 2010).
Audio effects are used to illustrate situations or
various objects in the game (Ratanasit, 2005). For
the visually impaired it is of particular importance
to have certain audio effects which would inform
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