Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
TECHNOLOGIES SUPPORTING
HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION
FOR THE DISABLED
effective. Besides the students' answers, the user's
behavior can be observed too, and statistics can be
made about their work, such as the amount of time
they had spent to complete a particular task. The
limitation of a query is the restricted spectrum of
possible answers. This problem can be overcome
by asking the participants to give comments on the
learning object or on the part of it. Notes collected
in this way are even more useful than the results
of a survey in which answers are pre-defined or
where the users grade particular segments of a
product. Stanić-Molcer (2009a, 2009b) present
a distance learning system with interactive on-
line exercises created for teaching digital signal
processing to students of engineering in which
emphasys was put on meeting the style of learning
of today's young generation oriented toward induc-
tive discovery and exploring, and the interactivity
needed in learning materials. After the analysis of
the results of the on-line questionnaire given to
the learners, it was clear which of the exercises
were misunderstood and, consequently, changes
in the instructions could be made of those tasks to
make them clearer to the students. Effectiveness
and attractiveness of the on-line exercises were
continuously evaluated during the development
of the e-learning project. Formative evaluation
was accomplished continuously, which gave
guidelines to the extensions and modifications of
the e-learning program. According to the results
obtained from each evaluation, new, enhanced
versions of the system were developed.
Pohl et al. (2008) describe the development
of an educational game (named Suli), which was
conducted with the participation of the future us-
ers. Pupils from the target group were involved in
every stage of the design process. Modifications
of the designs are easier in the first stage of the
development, and the use of a prototype can lower
the cost of the final product. A similar experience
is presented in the development of a game called
Lugram, particularly its version for the visually
impaired (Lučić et al., 2009).
User Interfaces for the Disabled
Persons with disabilities need different kinds of
user interfaces depending on the type of their
disability. The visually impaired have to touch
or hear information presented on the screen. On
the other hand, the hearing impaired cannot use
audio information - it should be conveyed as
text or additional images on a screen. Apart from
people with sensual disabilities, some people with
physical disabilities need suitable keyboards and
user interfaces. Computer games for the visually
impaired will be described in more detail in this
subsection.
The visually impaired can play audio and
tactile computer games within the limitations
of their abilities. It should be noted that due to
the financial factor, they predominantly use the
audio presentation of the graphic interface than
the tactile one. The blind generally use computers
with the help of screen readers and synthesizers,
which are used in games of entertaining purpose
generally for positioning active fields and in the
explanation of the rules of the game. However,
in the case of educational games, these tools are
vital for the playability of the game (Cunningham
et al., 2006). Achieving playability for the visu-
ally impaired is quite different from achieving
it for the blind. A visually impaired person may
have one or more types of impairment, such as
insufficient severity, tunnel vision, loss of sight in
certain parts of the field of view, color-blindness.
Therefore it is necessary to use color and texture
that will enhance contrast and enable them to
detect the text and objects more easily, as well as
to use suitable font and text size (IGDA, 2004).
The core of the problem of developing or
adapting video games to the visually impaired is
the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI that
is being used in multimedia games is not suit-
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