Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
to be achieved by adequate construction of the
story, and deals with scenes and their elements,
actors and problems. The GAM serves to make
the learning objectives clear and helps to address
one or more learning objectives in each scene. The
GAM was evaluated in a workshop organized for
creating a story for an educational game.
Special features of educational games can be
summarized as follows:
the game. In this way, every student could gain the
experience of handling a situation which would
otherwise be very difficult to simulate.
The society is changing, and the new model of
society requires workers who are flexible, capable
of accepting fast changes, and ready for fast but
lifelong learning. When the needs of distance learn-
ing consumers are concerned, the role of computer
games in education is maybe even higher than
in “traditional” education. Considering that the
negative side of many e-learning materials is the
lack of interactivity, and simple content delivery
via the Internet, educational games should be a
supplement in the existing learning environment
and they should contribute to compensation for
the lack of interactivity in the absence of a teacher.
The inherent characteristics of video games offer
possible personalization in terms of content and
learning styles, hence adaptive and assessable
designs of games can be integrated in on-line
education.
Moreno-Ger et al. (2008a) propose a game
design in which the user (the instructor in the
course) is able to choose assessment rules in the
game. The game is connected with an on-line
environment, while its assessment and adaptation
rules lie in the Learning Management System.
The assessment of learning is perhaps the most
difficult task in a teacher's work. Educational
games provide special ways of assessing learning.
One of them is tracking the students' activities such
as clicking the mouse buttons during game playing.
These data can serve to evaluate the technology
through the learning assessment.
The problems are that not every game is amus-
ing enough, not every game is educational, not
everybody likes playing games, and not every-
body is familiar with playing games. A particular
game justifies its use only if it brings benefits to
the users in the learning process. Students who
have plenty of experience with digital games are
more demanding. They have more expectations
from virtual reality systems in terms of design
Educational game genres: the design has
to be cost-effective and to balance between
entertainment and education.
The possibility of using for education com-
mercial games which have originally been
created for entertainment (Civilization,
Sim).
Special requirements from educational
games: flexibility, easy change of content,
easy updating and easy adjustment to indi-
vidual needs.
Monitoring: tracking student activity, as-
sessment, grading, and collecting data for
the purpose of improving the existing edu-
cational games and getting guidelines for
creating new ones.
Negotiation mode of games - dialogue with
the computer based on “Human Plausible
Reasoning Theory” introduced by Collins
and Michalski in the early 1990's, the the-
ory about plausible inferences that people
make about topics they know only partial-
ly, relying on similarities, generalization,
differences, etc.
Collaborative discourse.
The adaptive character of a game can be a huge
advantage, so that events which happen rarely
in the real world can occur more frequently in
a game. Torrente et al. (2009) describe the use
of the adaptive elements of the game in a virtual
blood-test laboratory. An event which is rare in
real life was made to occur in the experiment at
a random moment, but only once for each user of
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