Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
operation and collaboration between institutions,
networks and individuals. Among the goals of EU
funded projects EU-FP5, EU-FP6, and EU-FP7 is
the research on information and communication
technologies (ICT) as well as research on pos-
sibilities of lifelong learning.
EU made remarkable investments to support
the goals of e-Europe, E-learning Action Plan and
eContent Programs. It had invested 350 million
Euros until 2006 into “Socrates” and “Leonardo da
Vinci” programs, and more than 200 million Euros
into the eContent program within the research and
development frame program. The World Univer-
sity Service (WUS) Austria increases quality in
higher education in accordance with international
standards through its activities and the provision
of project development, project management,
networking and consulting services. The eContent
Program of WUS in Bosnia and Herzegovina
had the aim to introduce the creation and use of
digital educational content, transforming courses
into online educational content. The main goal
was to promote the general and specific aspects
of eLearning within the university staff and stu-
dents' community (Supporting the Development
of Higher Education, n.d.). The Lifelong Learning
Programme (LLP) is a European Funding program
of the European Commission's Education, Audio-
visual, and Culture Executive Agency in the field
of education and training (Education, Audiovisual,
and Culture Executive Agency, n.d.). It enables
individuals at all stages of their lives to pursue
stimulating learning opportunities across Europe.
should maintain a balance between entertainment
and education.
Some of the special features of educational
games are: the possibility of monitoring, negotia-
tion mode of games and collaborative discourse.
The process of creating a game is complex because
experts in different areas interact. Decisions of
each member of the team have consequences on
the other's work. Designing games of a story-like
genre is a project which requires collaboration of
script-writers, graphic designers, sound-artists
and programmers. Interactivity makes a game
out of an ordinary story. The user must have the
impression that he or she is the protagonist of
the story. Additional difficulty comes from the
fact that most of the game stories are not linear.
That means that the development of the story is
dictated by the choices that the user makes, and
the story cannot be told like in a movie. One of
the methods of creating a non-linear story is to
start by making a linear version of it, then adding
different chains of quests that the user can embark
on depending on his previous choices, thus mak-
ing the game non-linear.
Amory & Seagram (2003) present a model
which provides a framework for conceptualiza-
tion, design and development of educational
games, which can serve in the process of cre-
ation of educational games. The model intends
to integrate education theory and game design
and it consists of three models: the Game Object
Model (GOM), which provides support for get-
ting along from pedagogical elements (abstract)
to game components (concrete). The Persona
Outlining Model (POM) supports the creation
of human-computer interaction in the game, and
consists of elements which describe the user, not
only in terms of his or her features (occupation,
age, gender, education) but in terms of cognitive,
literary, communication and motor elements as
well. It includes all the abstract interfaces of the
GOM. The concrete interfaces of the GOM are
implemented in the Game Achievement Model
(GAM) which enables the learning objectives
Educational Game Technologies
The special requirements of educational games are
flexibility, easy change of content, easy updating
and easy adjustment to individual needs, as well
as cost-effectiveness while the selected genre
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