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Figure 1. PRM structure for the learner's emotions based on the control-value theory
which are related to the learner's attributions of
previous failure or success. Control t+1 and Value t+1
represent the probabilities that are transferred
from the outcome-prospective emotions DBN to
the activity emotions DBN, i.e. the influence that
the student's expectations have on the emotion
experienced while performing the specific learn-
ing activity.
As stated previously, inferring emotion from
its origin must address assessing the learner's
attitudes, goals, standards and beliefs. The theory
of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 2005) uses a quali-
tative and quantitative approach to assess a per-
son's behavioral intention, i.e. to know if the goal
exists. The approach involves designing and
building a questionnaire, which addresses the
qualitative and quantitative assessment of a per-
son's attitudes, standards and control beliefs
(Francis et al., 2004). Using Ajzen's approach as
a basis, we employ 'answers to posed questions'.
For the purposes of our research, these questions
were defined as part of the game narrative, which
occur in cut-scenes during game dialogues.
To evaluate the affective student model a
prototyping study based on Wizard-of-Oz ex-
periments (Höök, 2005) will be carried out with
students of Physics at undergraduate level. The
students are asked to:
1. Take a pre-test (the score is noted as soon
as the students finish the test).
2. Answer the questions posed in the game
3. Solve a Physics problem, which will
be implemented as a game challenge of
4. Get permission from the student to publish
the problem-solving results.
Steps 1-2 (above) assist with evaluating the
accuracy of the questions and the answers cre-
ated to acquire the evidence corresponding to
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