Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
Computer Games as
Ideal Learning Tools
an emotional intelligent game-based learning en-
vironment for teaching Physics at undergraduate
level, is introduced.
To evaluate the affective student model and
test the approach, a prototyping study based on
Wizard-of-Oz experiments was carried out. Once
the accuracy of the model has been verified, the
model will be incorporated into the Olympia ar-
chitecture. The Olympia architecture is described.
PlayPhysics' teaching effectiveness will be evalu-
ated through the comparison of students' learning
gains and learning efficiencies. Finally, this chapter
concludes by highlighting the advantages of using
a PRMs approach for student modeling, applying
game-based learning environments for teaching
and learning and incorporating affective ITSs. A
preliminary prototyping exercise was conducted
with the affective student model to determine
if the identified variables are sufficient to infer
accurately the learner's emotional state. When
a reliable model of the learner's emotional state
has been developed, the research will focus on
enabling PlayPhysics to provide a response that
accomplishes the maximum learning gain or that
alters the learner's emotional states to optimize
learning and understanding. Dynamic Decision
Networks (DDNs) will be applied to tutor model-
ing. The effectiveness of PlayPhysics for teaching
linear momentum, vectors, circular movement and
movement of rigid bodies at undergraduate level
will be evaluated.
Computer games reward the mastering of a skill
or ability in diverse ways such as incrementing
the score and advancing the narrative. In addition,
games easily attain the learner's attention, offer
immediate feedback and encourage independent
learning. Squire (2003) discusses that educational
games enhance the teaching-learning experience
through eliciting intense emotional responses.
Research has also been focused on the use of
games for assisting in the analysis of the learner's
patterns of interaction to create more effective
game designs, enhancing the understanding of
the impact of technology on individuals.
Sounds and visual media have proven effective
at influencing a game's playability, since audio
and visuals can communicate to, or create in,
the learner a positive mood or emotion (Malone,
1981). Malone (1981) also signaled that the sense
of fantasy created by the game narrative also influ-
ences the learner's emotional state and personal
disposition to play, since it enables emotional
mastery over a specific event. The problem is
creating a game that suits the personal demands of
a spectrum of users. The semantics of colors can
be used by video games to communicate feelings,
e.g. cold colors can cause the user to feel detached
from the environment, manage the user's attention,
e.g. bright colors easily attract the user's attention,
provide physical and psychological features to
game characters, show an object's function and
indicate a change in game progression (Zammitto,
2005). However, other in-game factors have been
shown to affect the user's willingness to play, e.g.
complexity, variability, novelty of the stimuli, the
level of experience, personality, gender and the
reinforcement of positive or negative behavior
(Chumbley & Griffiths, 2006).
To be effective, an educational game has to
incorporate specific characteristics into its de-
sign. Challenge, curiosity, fantasy and control are
features signaled by Malone and Lepper (1987).
Computer games are used as educational resources,
since one approach to learning is through experi-
ence. Therefore, actively involving the student
in the learning process has achieved enhanced
learning gains and improved understanding more
effectively than a passive approach, where the
student simply listens (Sykes, 2006).
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