Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
Figure 1. A model of GBL (Kearney & Pivec, 2007, p.2551)
sensorial stimuli (visual and hearing, dramatic
and new), the curiosity and the involved learning.
Garris et al (2002) point out that games should
include characteristics which enable quality learn-
ing. These elements must be incorporated on an
integrated platform, to structure objectives and
rules, a context of meaningful learning, an ap-
pealing story, immediate feedback, a high level of
interactivity, challenge and competition, random
elements of surprise and rich environments for
learning (Garris et al, 2002; Malone, 1981).
These factors determine the motivation to
play and learn at the same time (Malone, 1981;
Ruben, 1999; Prensky, 2000; Garris et al, 2002),
being also important for an effective and suc-
cessful learning, through the offer of contents
like interactivity, feedback, solving problems and
the effects of context, which promote reflective
behaviors' among the players (Pivec and Kearney,
2007). Games make the learning process possible
by allowing the development of critical thinking
that will be outlined during the act of playing.
Garris et al (2002) consider that an important
part of learning through the usage of games is
made outside the game cycle, through a reflection
about the experience.
Advantages of Educational Games
Digital games provide amusing alternatives, more
active and autonomous, opposing to the traditional
methods used in the process of teaching and
learning, making possible the materialization of
a Prensky (2001b) statement, which predicts that
today's students, the digital natives, will teach
Digital games are a new challenge to the
teaching community, providing the development
of cognitive skills and making possible the socio
cultural interactions stated by Greenfield (1996),
to whom videogames (or digital games) play an
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