Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
At the level of cognitive I 2 , we can state that:
For the three fundamental VBPs:
Using the visual orientation schema;
Using the schema of walking and
Using the schema of gripping and spatial handling of a product.
For the secondary VBPs: Using the schema of visual observation in all directions.
At the level of sensorimotor I 2 , the selected artefacts (the hardware devices) should
be easy to use, and thus require a minimum training time (ten to twenty minutes, which
is relatively small compared to the overall training time: a few hours). The immersion
of the driving crew member is successful if he forgets that he is in front of a computer
system and he can then concentrate on his training. We will discuss the solutions used
for the different VBPs in the next paragraph. 2D movement on railway tracks
In principle, the schema to be used that makes a natural interaction possible is evidently
the schema of walking, which is important for the training: the trainee should realise
physically that his movements can take up his time, particularly if he goes wrong, being
fully aware that the time available for an operation on the track should be as short as
possible. The basic technical problem is the difficulty to make a 2D moving walkway
that can be used to walk in both directions. Prototypes have been made, but they
have problems in mechanical implementation and use. Even a 1D moving walkway
that moves only in one direction has a sensorimotor discrepancy: the user's vestibular
systems indicate an absence of movement in contrast to the sensations coming from
his lower limbs. Users assimilate this alteration in the schema of walking after some
training. Is it the same for a 2Dmoving walkway? If a 1Dmoving walkway is used, it is
necessary to use another schema for turning. One of the solutions is to use the schema
of changing the direction using a handlebar (Figure 2.16). Tests have been carried out
to validate it (the direction is changed using hands and not legs). CogSA are associated
with artefacts that facilitate the person's cognitive I 2 . For example, when the user's
intention to reach the telephone or the switching control is detected, the user's virtual
Figure 2.16 Behavioural interfacing of the 2D movement by a controlled moving walkway and a
“handlebar'' to turn. (Illustration: École des mines de ParisTech, with permission)
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