Game Development Reference
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steering wheel compared to the feedback received in a real vehicle. In this way, the
inexperienced drivers using the simulator have a greater perception of the vehicle's
on-road behaviour though their vestibular systems have no knowledge about the
vehicle movements. In this case, it is obvious that at the level of functional I 2 the
force feedback does not need to be exactly like the feedback in the real world.
The CogSA used helps every inexperienced driver using the simulator to control
the vehicle.
In the second case, it is necessary to detect the intention of the subject who is trying
to accomplish a task, for example:
In a VR-based training system for the members of the driving crew of TGV (we
will discuss this later at length), the user has to go near a telephone pole to pick
up the receiver. Considering the interfaces used (big screen, moving walkway and
handle bar), it is difficult for the driver to move as easily as he walks in a real
environment (without BSAs, he might desperately go round the pole several times
while controlling the handle bar). CogSA has been programmed to make this
task easier: once the pole comes close and the driver's intention becomes clear, he
automatically starts facing the pole. This is in line with the objective of functional
I 2 because the training is not for moving in a virtual environment! Determining
the intention of the immersed subject(s) is an important issue of research in the
field of VR, which should eventually make it possible to find efficient cognitive
software aids.
The CogSA can be determined depending on the affordances of the objects or
the subject's surroundings. As per Gibson's theory (1979), an affordance represents
the interactions possible between the object and the subject. These interactions are
perceived by the subject with respect to the idea that he has built about the object's
function, more than what he perceives through the physical, geometrical or other
characteristics of the object or the environment. It is thus more useful to know in
advance the purpose of an element of the environment than having precise notions
of its geometry or its physical characteristics. The researchers use this approach as
their basis to analyse the subject's behaviour in a virtual environment (Morineau et al.,
2001). For our part, we can predict the CogSA that help the subject to effectively
interact with an object by understanding the affordances of that object.
Before using this model of interfacing of a user in a virtual environment for design-
ing as well as assessing a VR device, it is necessary to remind the reader that the main
difficulty in immersion and interaction of the subject comes from the disturbances
in the “perception, cognition, action'' loop(s). These disturbances can be overcome
by correctly choosing the interface devices, cognitive processes and the BSAs to help
the subject to act efficiently in the artificial “perception, cognition, action'' loops that
include an artefact (refer to figure 2.10).
2.4.4 Design approach
For designing a virtual reality system, we will assume that it is preferable to reach
the level of the user's sensorimotor intelligence to help his I 2
in the virtual world,
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