Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
Display
surface
Handheld
surface
World-centered
Object-centered
User-centered
(head, hand, body)
Hardware
interface-centered
Verbal (speech)
with 2D
physical
medium
Gestural
Menus/2D widgets
without 2D
physical
medium
Menus/Widgets
Graphic
selection
Application
control
Menus/3D widgets
Virtual tools
Selection
of
physical
tools
Button
Hardware
interface
dedicated
to control
PDA
Figure 12.24 Taxonomy of interfaces for application control
drop-down menus and desktop icons. This interface is today the de facto standard of
2D environments.
Given the different objectives of 3D applications, such a consensus does not exist
and cannot exist in the 3D world. While many techniques are inspired by 2D menus,
their transposition is not without problems because 3D interaction is very different
from its 2D equivalent: the third dimension complicates the positioning of 2D menus,
the degrees of additional freedom making selection more complicated (also see the
section on selection and manipulation), the sensory-motor 3D hardware interfaces are
very different from 2D hardware interfaces (monitor, keyboard, mouse) and do not
always make easy and accurate selection possible ... The field is however still young
and methods that are more typically 3D (designed for 3D) are still rare. The analyses
and assessment of these solutions are even rarer. We will try to present and discuss
the well-known methods. The classification proposed uses the method for issuing the
command as the first criterion. It is inspired by the works of Kruijff (2000), LaViola
(2001), and McMillan et al. (1997). It standardises and completes the taxonomies
proposed by these authors, see Figure 12.6.1.
The first criterion of classification chosen is shown by the selection mode. There
are mainly 5 selection modes: verbal, graphic selection, gestural, selection of physical
tools and use of hardware interfaces dedicated to control.
The verbal mode is attractive in many respects: it is natural, it keeps the hands
free, requires neither display of menus nor using hardware interfaces that can be incom-
patible with the realization of other tasks. It is however the least popular until now
because, to compensate for the previous advantages, it is tiring for the user, is hardly
compatible with group work where several persons talk together, requires learning that
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