Game Development Reference
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the pockets that are controlled by servovalves have been replaced by solenoid type
actuators (Stone, 2000).
In the context of the teleoperated tasks, the researchers of the Toshiba Corps.
Nuclear Engineering Laboratory have integrated inflatable ballonets in the form of
a ring on a DataGlove of VPL Corp (Sato et al., 1991; Igarashi et al., 1992). These
pneumatic rings are made in such a way as to make it possible to wear them on the
fingers over the glove. The pneumatic actuator is located at the base of the ring and
is an air balloon that applies pressure on the finger. Its diameter is 8mm and length
12mm (in inflated state). Outlet pressure is 3 kg/cm 2 .
The DTSS (Displaced Temp.Sensing System) has been offered by researchers of the
CMResearch company and is specially designed for teleoperation and VE applications.
When this system is used with location devices, it allows a particular temperature to
be placed at the appropriate place in the VE, which is then felt by the user's finger.
The present product, the DTSS X/10 model, is designed for research applications. It
is made up of a controller, with eight “Thermodes''. The temperature ranges between
10 C and 45 C, with a resolution of 0.1 C.
The Tactool system, marketed by Xtensory, Inc., based on a Tactor (actuator) is
connected by a cable and fitted in a way that makes it possible for it to be mounted
on the fingertips. The controller, which can support up to 10 actuators (Tactors),
facilitates the interfacing of an application software in order to be able to pilot the
various actuators. Each actuator delivers a force of 30 g and operates in a vibratory
mode with a bandwidth of 20Hz.
In December 1995, Virtual Technologies, Inc. released the CyberTouch, which
generates tactile rendering on the CyberGlove. Piezoelectric tactile stimulators are fixed
on each fingertip and on the palm of the user's hand to provide impulses or continuous
vibration. The vibration frequency produced ranges between 0 and 125Hz (Youngblut,
1996).
Researchers in the Hashimoto Laboratory, Institute of Industrial Science, Uni-
versity of Tokyo, are interested in studying Nanorobotic teleoperation. This type of
application is possible thanks to the tunnel effect microscopes (Scanning Tunneling
Microscope STM) and Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) that can provide 3D images
of topology and atomic size. The manipulation of the “nanoworld'' constitutes an
extraordinary challenge in the characterisation of the behaviour of individual macro-
molecules (like DNA). In material physics, the micromanipulation applied to the study
of the exceptional mechanical properties of the structures in carbon nanotubes helps
to plan the construction of extremely resistant materials on the manometric scale.
In the future, the manipulation of the “nanoworld'' will help to develop nanochips,
nanorobots and nanomachines integrating nanomotors and nanosensors.
10.4.2.2 Tactile interfaces dedicated to the studies of tactile perception
Even if many tactile interfaces have been made for teleoperation and telepresence
applications, research laboratories around the world have made considerable efforts
to try and model the tactile interaction of an operator in his environment. This section
presents some of these interfaces.
In the University of Nagoya in Japan, T. Fukuda and his team (1997) came up with
an electromagnetic actuator prototype that satisfies the required performance during
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