Game Development Reference
In-Depth Information
Table 8.3 Features of PHANToM (PHA.) of the Premium range.
PHA. 1.0
PHA. 1.5/1.5 HF
PHA. 3.0
254 × 178 × 127mm
381 × 267 × 191mm
838 × 584 × 406mm
Peak force
Continuous force
Apparent mass
< 75 g
< 75/ < 150 g
< 159 g
PHA. 1.5 6DOF
PHA. 3.0 6DOF
297 × 260 × 335
297 × 260 × 335
0.0023 to 0.008
0.0023 to 0.008
Peak torque
170 to 515mNm
170 to 515mNm
Continuous torque
48 to 188mNm
48 to 188mNm
Apparent mass
< 136/ < 210 g
< 220 g
Another serial interface is Virtuose from the Haption company which uses tech-
nologies developed by the CEA-LIST. A first prototype with 6 degrees of freedom,
including 3 for force feedback, called Virtuose 3D, was developed in 2000 (Figure 8.7)
(Gosselin & Riwan, 2001). This robot uses a structure constituting a serial parallel-
ogram with a pivot linkage for the translations, which helps to place all the motors
close to the base and thus restrict the apparent mass at the level of the handle. An exact
balancing by a spring also helps to totally offset the weight felt by the user. The use of
capstan reducers provides high transparency. In addition, their use in the rotations of
a wrist whose axes converge at the centre of the hand helps to uncouple the transla-
tion and rotation movements. This prototype is planned for use with power grip. The
travel, like the force, is thus relatively significant.
A second version that was optimised and had 6 degrees of freedom with force
feedback called Virtuose 6D 35-45 was developed later, and then industrialised by
Haption. It has been marketed since the year 2002. Its performance is available
on Its capacities are useful in a wide range of virtual reality
applications (life-like ergonomic studies, assembly/dismounting studies, etc.).
There are numerous other interfaces with serial structures, amongst which we can
cite the Freedom 6S developed initially by the McGill University inMontreal in Quebec
(Hayward, 1995; Hayward et al., 1997) and marketed by the Canadian company,
MPB Technologies Inc., or the Haptic Master from the FCS Control Systems company
(Van Der Linde et al., 2002).
Unlike the previous interfaces, the Haptic Master uses a control diagram in admit-
tance. Its actuators are not reversible, and a force sensor must be used to measure the
force applied by the user and make the arm transparent. This more complex solution
helps to develop an extremely high force and a very high stiffness. This, however, is at
the cost of an apparent inertia that is higher than on the mechanically reversible arms.
The PERCRO laboratory in Italy has also developed an interface with 3 degrees of
freedom with a force feedback whose spherical architecture (a serial dial with a slider
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