Game Development Reference
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Figure 8.3 Force feedback interfaces with internal and external reaction
8.3.1 Performance criteria and specifications Concept of transparency
Since the emergence of teleoperation in the nuclear industry in the mid 50's, numerous
haptic interfaces have been developed for varied applications (Gosselin, 2000): nuclear
teleoperation (Köhler, 1981; Vertut & Coiffet, 1985), underwater, space (McAffee &
Fiorini, 1991), telesurgery (Baumann & Clavel, 1998; Gosselin et al., 2005b), vir-
tual reality (Burdea & Coiffet, 1993). The most significant developments include the
master arms JPL Model C and Model X (McAffee & Fiorini, 1991) as well as the hap-
tic interfaces PHANToM (Massie & Salisbury, 1994), Freedom 7 (Hayward, 1995)
and Virtuose 6D (Friconneau et al., 2002). Irrespective of the field of use, the haptic
interface must allow a natural interaction with the environment. Ideally, the operator
must feel as if he is directly handling the remote or virtual objects without feeling the
presence of the interface. This “transparency'' of the haptic interface must be ensured
in free space as well as on contact. This requires a certain number of conditions to be
Transparency in free space: to provide natural interaction, the user should be able
to move as freely as possible.
He should not feel the tangible presence of the interface. For this, the user needs
to have adequate work space that has no peculiarities which are likely to block his
movements. It is also important that the interface be as light as possible so that the
user does not need to fight its inertia when he makes quick movements. Finally, it is
important that its force sensitivity be as high as possible so that the user can set it in
motion without forcing and can smoothly move it without jerks. For this, the simplest
thing is to design an interface that is mechanically reversible and has the lowest possible
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