Game Development Reference
Figure 8.1 Master-slave system for teleoperation. (Illustration: CEA-LIST, with permission)
This type of system is illustrated below in figure 8.1 (6 DOF MA 23 M master arm
from Cybernétix with force feedback and Dextre slave arm developed in CEA LIST).
This progress has made it possible to extend teleoperation to numerous domains.
This technique is thus used everywhere where man cannot intervene directly, either
because the environment is hostile (nuclear, underwater, space, etc.), or because it is
not accessible due to size constraints (micromanipulation, microsurgery, invasive mini
surgery, etc.). Recently, incredible progress in IT has also made it possible to use
this type of devices not only for remote control but also to interact with a virtual
environment. Again, the purpose here is to give an illusion of the most complete
immersion possible in the virtual world. This type of device is illustrated in figure 8.2
(Virtuose 6D 35-45 developed in CEA and marketed by the Haption company).
There are numerous force feedback interfaces. It is generally difficult to classify
them because we can use several working frameworks for this: type of force feedback
considered, type of interaction, number of degrees of freedom, type of mechanical
Thus, as the forces are transmitted by contact between the robot gripper of the
interface and the body of the user (generally his hand), the law of statics between the
action and reaction requires these forces to be taken elsewhere. This has two solutions
that provide a first classification (Figure 8.3):
The mechanism creating the forces can rest on another part of the body (for exam-
ple, force-feedback exoskeleton for the arm). In this case, we refer to force feedback